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Material 4

HIP HOP Kultur

"Hip Hop ist das Gefühl in dir: Viele von uns Schwarzen haben keine eigene Kultur, wir haben sie uns selbst erschaffen: Hip Hop! Das macht mich stolz für uns alle." (Trugoy, De La Soul)

RAP

Rap (amerikanischer Slang: quasseln) ist ein Musikstil, der Ende der 70er Jahre in der Bronx, New York, aufkam. Er ist vor allem der in den schwarzen Discos üblichen Schnellsprechpraxis der Disk-Jockeys abgelauscht. Der Text wird stark rhythmisiert gesprochen, die Melodie tritt in den Hintergrund. Die Stimme wird im Rap von ihrer Klangfarbe her wie ein Schlaginstrument präsentiert; der Gesang erhält somit perkussiven Charakter.

Breakdance

Diese Art, sich zu bewegen, heißt "mit dem Körper sprechen". Dieser Straßentanz vermischt roboterhafte, rhythmische Bewegungen mit akrobatischen Sprüngen, Pirouetten auf Schultern, Kopf oder Rücken. Gelegentlich tragen breaker hautenge Skianzüge und spezielle Mützen, die ihnen bestimmte Tanzpassagen, das Drehen und Kreiseln auf dem Kopf (headspin), erleichtern. Ansonsten gibt es keine besondere Kleidung.

Graffiti

1967 führte Robert Reisner den Begriff Graffiti in den amerikanischen Sprachraum ein, und zwar als Überbegriff für subkulturelle Auf- und Inschriften. George Lucas sorgte mit dem Film Wildlife für die weltweite Verbreitung des Begriffes. Graffiti-Writer tragen häufig funktionelle Kleidung, Turnschuhe, damit sie möglichst schnell fliehen können, dunkle Sachen und Pudelmützen oder Kapuzen, um nicht erkannt zu werden. Zur Vorsicht tragen sie Handschuhe, damit ihnen beim Sprühen keine Farbe an den Fingern haften bleibt.

Fragen und Aufgaben

  • Sammle weitere Informationen über die Hip Hop Kultur und erstelle eine Collage!
  • Erstelle ein Porträt eines dir bekannten Rap-Musikers oder einer Gruppe!
  • Welche unterschiedlichen Rap-Stile kannst du herausfinden?
  • Welche andere afro-amerikanische Musikrichtung hat unsere Kultur ebenfalls nachhaltig beeinflusst?
  • Vergleiche deine Lebenssituation mit der, wie sie für die Jugendlichen in der Bronx besungen wird!
  • Ergänze das Lied rechts um weitere Informationen über die Bronx.
  • Vergleiche den Inhalt dieses Songs mit dem Leben von Elvis, "the Pope”, Brian und Zone!
  • Vergleiche diesen Rap-Song mit deutschen, z.B. vom Rödelheim Hartreim Projekt oder den Fantastischen Vier.

Rap Music

Rap or Rap Music, popular music that consists of topical rhyme verses recited over a recorded or live instrumental background. Rap first appeared in the mid-1970s as an outgrowth of popular dance music. Developed by urban American blacks, its format originally consisted of a disk jockey (D.J.) alternating and mixing snippets of previously recorded music and adding rhythmical scratching sounds, while a "rapper" sang or recited rhymed, syncopated lyrics. Rap music recordings and performances may not involve any live instrumentalists or singers. The musical background is often provided by prerecorded music, electronic synthesizers, drum machines, or electronic or digital sampling of prerecorded material (see Electronic Music). Rap musicians sample a wide range of street sounds, historical music, and spoken-word recordings in a powerful, flexible musical format. Rap lyrics often address contemporary topics. Originally popular with a limited audience, especially in nightclubs, by the early 1990s rap had become part of the American mainstream, with albums regularly among Billboard's top 40 charts and with rap slang and fashions permeating teenage culture. Black rap groups such as Run-DMC and white rap groups such as the Beastie Boys spread the genre's early popularity. Although rap lyrics often dealt with difficult subjects such as gangs, drugs, and crime, rap's mainstream popularity was typified by such lighthearted artists and groups as MC Hammer, Vanilla Ice, and Jazzy Jeff and the Fresh Prince.

Rap music also became the subject of criticism and controversy because of sexually explicit lyrics by groups such as 2 Live Crew, which was charged with obscenity and acquitted. Other rap groups and artists, such as gangsta rap pioneers NWA (Niggaz With Attitude), Ice-T, and Ice Cube, were criticized for glorifying violence (especially toward women and government authorities), using profane lyrics, and promoting controversial political views. The rap group Public Enemy eschewed commercialism and gained attention for its strong political messages. Other influential rap artists of the 1990s include Queen Latifah, one of the most successful female rap artists; A Tribe Called Quest, one of the first groups to regularly include recorded samples of jazz music, and Snoop Doggy Dogg, one of the most popular rappers of the mid-1990s.

Graffito

also sgraffito, in art, a technique of producing a design by incising or cutting through a surface layer of paint or plaster to reveal a contrasting undercoat. The term is derived from an Italian word meaning “scratched.” True graffito techniques are found primarily in ancient, medieval, and Renaissance art, but the term is usually extended to include any technique that involves scratching a design on stone or plaster with a sharp instrument. Graffiti are abundant in ancient Egyptian and Roman art and have been found in Pompeii and the Roman catacombs. Many casual ancient graffiti, scratched on walls by passersby, have been unearthed, the most famous of which is a caricature of Christ on the cross, found on the walls of the Domus Gelotiana on the Palatine Hill in Rome in 1856. Graffito techniques involving the incising of gold leaf in illustrated manuscripts were common in the Middle Ages, and the facades of Renaissance palaces often sported differently colored coats of plaster in graffito effects. In the 20th century artists have used a free style of graffito technique in which large areas are cut away from the surface layer, often producing graduated tones midway between the overlay and the undercoat.

The term graffito is derived from an Italian word meaning scratched. True graffito techniques are found in ancient, medieval and Renaissance art. In 1967 Robert Reisner introduced this term into the American culture to describe epigraphs of modern subculture. After George Lucas’ movie 'Wildlife' the term graffito had been spread worldwide.